Tuesday, 6 May 2008

Vitamin K

Vitamin K is essential for making a bone protein called osteocalcin fully functional. This protein is part of the bone structure when it is "carboxylated" (a chemical modification of the protein that changes its shape making it easy to bind to calcium) in the presence of sufficient vitamin K. Vitamin K is essential to make the bone protein osteocalcin fully functional. With adequate vitamin K, osteocalcin binds to calcium, strengthening bones. Vitamin K is needed for effective blood clotting. A deficiency is rare due to bacteria synthesis within the body.

Vitamin K is found in various foods including green leafy vegetables, meat, and dairy products. If you eat a balanced diet containing these foods, you should be getting all the vitamin K you need. Vitamin K is best known as being required for blood to clot. Interestingly, it is also required to activate several proteins that decrease blood clotting. Vitamin-K epoxide reductase is encoded by the VKORC1 gene in mammals and other vertebrates, which also have a paralog, VKORC1L1. Single homologs are present in basal deuterostome and insect genomes, including Drosophila, and three trypanosomatid protists.

Vitamin K is also abundant in many vegetable oils, including soybean, canola, and olive oil. Vitamin K is the name of a group of compounds that are all related to one another. In the last decade most of the research has turned to the more effective Menaquinones, or vitamin K2. Vitamin K is either synthesized in the intestinal tract by microorganisms or it is provided in the diet as vitamin K (menadione). The presence of molds in the diet or extremely high dietary levels of antibiotics can interfere with vitamin-K synthesis in the intestinal tract.

Vitamin K is a fat-soluable vitamin that is stored in the liver in minute amounts. It derives its name from the term "koagulation vitamin" due to its role in blood clotting. Vitamins are present in the rabbits normal fresh foods, and they are added to pre-prepared rabbit mixes, so deficiencies are rare. Some vitamins are synthesised in the gut of the rabbit (Vitamin B complex) and so they do not have to be present in the ration. Vitamin and mineral supplements are not necessary for the average healthy, full-term breastfed baby during the first year. Breastmilk is all that your baby needs for at least the first six months of life.

Protein and carbohydrate metabolism is intact and there is no reduction in the absorption of Vitamin K or production of clotting factors. Protein (amino acids) allows ALL ONE to be naturally time-released because your body digests it over time. ALL ONE is a balanced multiple that takes the guesswork out of your supplement routine. Proteins C, S, and Z participate in the clotting mechanism and bind calcium. The newborn infant is usually given Vitamin K soon after birth for prophylaxis against hemorrhagic disease of the newborn.

Blood clotting is a process that begins automatically when any injury produces a tear in a blood vessel. The process of blood clotting involves a collection of molecules, which circulate continuously through the bloodstream. Blood-thinning drugs can inhibit the absorption of vitamin K.

Babies need vitamin K to prevent haemorrhagic disease, which can cause serious complications. There are also low levels of vitamin k in breastmilk, so if you choose oral vitamin K and are breastfeeding we will give your baby three doses of vitamin K rather than the one which we give to formula-fed babies. Babies are born with very small amounts of Vitamin K in their bodies.

Deficiencies of Vitamin E will cause cell damage and death in skeletal muscle, heart, testes, liver, and nerves. It is essential in keeping the cells of these organs alive and functioning. Deficiency may occur in vegetarians and in people with prolonged insufficient intake of meats or meat products. Whole grain products like whole wheat bread and oatmeal contain vitamin B1 and B6, which help with nutrient utilization, as well as muscle and nervous systems coordination. Deficiency causes skin disorders, increased susceptibility to infection, nyctalopia, xerophthalmia and other eye disorders, anorexia, and sterility. As vitamin A it is mostly found in liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products; its other major dietary source is the provitamin A carotenoids of plants.
Deficiency is particularly common among breastfed infants. Diagnosis is suspected based on routine coagulation study findings and confirmed by response to vitamin K. Deficiency of vitamin K may lead to Alzheimer’s disease.

Deficiency is particularly common among breastfed infants. Diagnosis is suspected based on routine coagulation study findings and confirmed by response to vitamin K. Deficiency of vitamin K may lead to Alzheimer’s disease.

Warfarin acts by keeping vitamin K from working, which then leads to less clotting ability of platelets. As long as you have the same amount of vitamin K every day, then everything will be good with the warfarin. Warfarin inhibits VKORC1, reducing clotting efficiency and creating the anticoagulation effect of the drug.

Menadione, the synthetic form of vitamin K, is the most potent, with twice the activity of phylloquinone. However, recent studies have shown that humans may not absorb as much of this bacterial-produced vitamin K as previously thought. Menadione combined with vitamin C, without the use of chemotherapy or radiation, has shown anticancer effects in vitro and in vivo.

Medicines such as isoniazid, warfarin and anticonvulsants can interfere with foetal vitamin K synthesis in pregnant women. This may cause infant vitamin K deficiency. Medication errors specific to oral anticoagulants generally occur either due to inadequate monitoring, co-administration of medications that interact with warfarin, or inadequate treatment of excessively prolonged INR values. However, despite the number of patients who receive warfarin, and the frequency of excessively prolonged INR values, there has been little research into the frequency, clinical implications and costs of inappropriate warfarin dosing.

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